Fossil fuels have been the world’s main source of energy for a very long time. It has been used in various fields, including transportation, agriculture, etc., where the use of fossil fuels. Greenhouse gasses such as carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrogen oxides will be released, resulting in global warming.
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But we cannot deny that our comfort is based on fossil energy development.
fossil energy Caused by the deposition of fossils about 500 million years ago and the decomposition of organic matter. make the remains of those animals transform into a highly flammable object Fossil fuels come in all 3 states: solid, liquid, and gas. Well-known solid-state fossil fuels are coal. Well-known liquid fossil fuels are crude oil. Well-known gaseous fossil fuels are natural gas. Rocks are used as primary fuels. in large industrial plants and used as fuel in power plants Crude oil is fractionally distilled. to separate each type of oil from each other Such as gasoline, kerosene, diesel oil, lubricating oil, grease, fuel oil, asphalt, including cooking gas. For natural gas before being used, it must go through different gas separation processes to add value to different gas types.
After fossil fuels have been buried under the earth’s surface for a long time. Therefore, the first human tribes to use these fuels were around 2,500 BC. Babylonian tribes used oil as fuel. Therefore, crude oil has been used instead. shortly after Crude oil became desirable and valuable.
Fossil fuels are found both on land and in the sea. The areas where crude oil is most discovered are in the Middle East such as Saudi Arabia, Iraq, Iran, etc. In addition, in South American countries, crude oil is also extracted such as Venezuela and Mexico.
For Thailand, fossil fuels have been excavated in all 3 states: Coal was found in Mae Moh District, Lampang Province, where a power plant using coal was established. crude oil Can be found both on land and in the sea, for example, a crude oil field was found in Fang District, Chiang Mai Province, Sirikit Source, Lan Krabue District. Kamphaeng Phet Province, etc., and natural gas is found in the area of Thai people. There are many excavation sites such as Bongkot field, Erawan field, etc.
1 Coal (coal)
Coal is a type of sedimentary rock which is flammable. Coal is the remnant of past plants that died, accumulating in marshy terrain. Over the course of millions of years, the plant remains buried and transformed into peat. The longer the life of coal, the better the quality will be. Coal has an important component which is carbon which is about not less than 50% by weight or 70% by volume. Factors that cause a change consisting of temperature and pressure Coal is a sedimentary rock that can be combustible. carbon compounds which are about not less than 50 percent by weight or 70 percent by volume. Coal originates from natural changes of plants that decompose and accumulate in watersheds or basins for many years. hundred million years When the surface of the earth changes, such as an earthquake, volcanic eruption or more deposition of sediment causing the accumulation source to be subjected to increased pressure and heat within the earth Those plant remains will be transformed into different types of coal.
Because plants and animals are made up of many tiny cells, these cells contain two important macroelements, hydrogen (H) and carbon (C). The remains of animals and plants turn rubble into oil. natural gas or coal Therefore, it contains most of the hydrocarbons. and this hydrocarbon When burned, it gives out energy.
type of coal
If using the criteria about the quality of coal or the amount of carbon in the coal. Coal can be classified into four types:
1) Lignite coal is coal that still has a small amount of plant residues that are visible and has a color.
Dark brown to very black It has a carbon content of about 50 – 70 percent and a high sulfur content. and the moisture content as high as 30 – 38 percent is considered the lowest quality coal. When burned, it gives low heat, about 8,900 kcal/kg.
2) Sub-bituminous coal (Sub-bituminous) looks dark brown to black. coal meat will
Soft like wax, not very hard, carbon content 70 – 80%, low sulfur content. This type of coal is often used as fuel to generate electricity. or used in industrial plants When burned, it gives medium heat about 5,400 kcal/kg.
3) Bituminous coal is dense, hard, shiny black coal.
The carbon content is about 80 -90 percent. This type of coal is suitable for use as coal for metal smelting. or used as fuel in power plants When burned, it gives high heat, about 6,700 kcal/kg.
4) Anthracite is the best quality coal. looks black and shiny
It has high gloss. It has a carbon content of more than 90%, has a very low moisture content and a high calorific value, has little smoke but is difficult to ignite. Most often used as a fuel source for heating the house. in the glass industry and chemical industry etc.